Views:4 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-08-06 Origin:Site
Nuclear batteries are also called "radioisotope batteries", or isotope batteries for short. It uses semiconductor transducers to convert the heat energy continuously released by radioisotopes in the decay process into electrical energy. The radioisotopes used in nuclear batteries mainly include 210Po, 90Sr, 147Pm, 238Pu, 60Co, 63Ni, etc. Because these radioactive isotopes have a long half-life, nuclear batteries can be used for a long time. In addition, the energy, speed, size, etc. of the radioactive isotopes of nuclear batteries are not affected by the temperature, pressure, chemical reactions, and electromagnetic field effects in the external environment. Therefore, nuclear batteries can operate in a wide temperature range and harsh conditions. Working in the environment, it has the characteristics of strong anti-interference performance and accurate and reliable work. Nuclear batteries have been successfully used as power sources for spacecraft, satellites, underwater monitors, submarine cable relay stations, cardiac pacemakers and artificial hearts, submarine submarine navigation beacons, and maritime unmanned management Power supply for lighthouses, power supply for spacecraft, and some special military applications. In appearance, nuclear batteries are generally cylindrical. The radioisotope source is sealed in the center of the cylinder, and the thermionic converter or thermocouple type transducer is on the outside. The outer layer of the transducer is a radiation-proof shielding layer, and the outermost layer is a metal cylinder shell. The radiation shielding layer of tungsten alloy nuclear battery can be used as the radiation shielding layer of nuclear battery.
A nuclear battery is a device that uses the decay of radioisotopes to release energy-carrying particles (such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays) and convert their energy into electrical energy. Alpha particles are positively charged high-energy particles, composed of two neutrons and two protons, and have a mass four times that of a hydrogen atom. Once alpha particles are inhaled or eaten by humans, they can directly destroy visceral cells and cause tissue damage. Because of its strong ionization effect, it causes no less harm to the human body than other radiation; beta particles are high-speed electrons that can be negatively and positively charged, and their penetrating ability is stronger than that of alpha particles. The ionizing radiation of beta particles can change the chemical balance of cells and cause certain cancers. It can also damage the DNA molecular structure in cells, leading to malformations and congenital leukemia in the next generation; γ-rays are rays released by atomic nucleus energy level transitions, with a wavelength shorter than 0.01 angstroms and stronger penetrating power than X-rays. When the human body is irradiated with gamma rays, gamma rays can enter the human body and ionize human cells, erode organic molecules such as proteins, enzymes, and nucleic acids, and cause interference with normal chemical processes in the human body. Therefore, the radiation shielding layer of tungsten alloy nuclear battery is necessary.
The radiation shielding layer of tungsten alloy nuclear battery has a good shielding effect on radioactive materials. Tungsten alloy is an alloy composed of tungsten and other elements. Among metals, tungsten has the highest melting point, and has properties such as high density, high strength, high hardness, and good wear resistance. According to research, the shielding benefit of metal is closely related to its density. The tight shielding benefit increases with the increase in density. The high density of tungsten alloy makes the radiation shielding benefit of the radiation shielding layer of tungsten alloy nuclear battery very high.